In order to sow maize, the soil temperature at a depth of 10 cm must have reached 8-10 ° C permanently. For the soil and climatic conditions of Bulgaria, sowing should be done between April 5 and May 5-10. Earlier or later sowing from this period leads to reduced results. Earlier sowing guarantees the necessary moisture for the crop to germinate, but is also associated with the risk that the soil temperature will fall below 10 ° C and the seeds will slow down their development or even die. With late sowing, the soil may dry out and the necessary moisture for seed germination may be insufficient. The optimal density for sowing corn depends on the selected hybrid, soil type and cultivation technology (tillage, irrigation or non-irrigation conditions, row spacing and etc.).
The recommended seed density, depending on the maturity of the hybrid, under non-irrigated conditions is as follows:
Early hybrids – 6500 – 7000 harvested plants / dca
Medium-early hybrids – 6000 – 6500 harvested plants / dca
Late hybrids – 5500 – 6000 harvested plants / dca.
The row spacing when sowing corn is usually 70 cm. Increasing the row spacing under non-irrigated growing conditions to 90 cm, while maintaining the number of plants per decare, does not lead to a change in yield.
The sowing depth should be 6-8 cm. It depends mainly on the soil structure and moisture content at the time of sowing. In heavy soils with a clay structure, the depth is reduced to 4-6 cm. The depth of sowing is determined by the size of the seeds. It should not exceed in centimeters, the diameter of the seed in millimeters.
Sowing is done with precision seed drills for trench crops. It should start with early hybrids, from light soil-type fields that dry faster, and end with late hybrids.