For sowing, seeds are taken from the large fractions, which must have good purity and high germination. If necessary, they are treated against diseases and pests. The most suitable soils for growing sunflower are: chernozem, resin, dark gray and alluvial soils. It does not grow well on acidic and saline soils, optimal pH 6-7. A suitable period for sowing sunflowers is for southern Bulgaria on March 15-20, and for northern Bulgaria on March 25-30, when the soil temperature rises to 8-10 degrees. Sowing is done in rows with a pneumatic drill at a depth of 5-7 cm. The distances between the rows are 70 cm, and in the row 26-28 cm. At these norms of distances in a decare are sown to 6000 seeds and get about 4500-5000 plants. Sunflower is a thermophilic crop. During the growing season it needs a temperature sum of 2,600 to 2,850 degrees. The seeds germinate in about 15 days at a temperature of 8-10 degrees and in 9-10 days at 15-16 degrees. When germinating, the seeds can withstand temperatures down to minus 4-6 degrees.
In our country sunflower is fertilized mainly with mineral fertilizers, it also responds well to organic fertilization in poorer soils. If there is manure, it is distributed at 1.5-2 tons per decar. Depending on the soil reserves and the planned yields, the soil is enriched with mineral fertilizers. Average recommended fertilization rates: in non-irrigated conditions 10-12 kg of nitrogen and phosphorus per decare, and in irrigated conditions 16-18 kg of nitrogen and phosphorus and 12-14 kg of potassium.
TYPES Fertilizers from the ALFA COTED range ™
ALFA AMONIA N36.1
The product contains: amide and nitrate nitrogen (N). It is an ideal substitute for pre-sowing and surface application / feeding. The use of ALFA AMONIA N 36.1 is a SINGLE fertilization with a dose of 70% of the conventional nitrogen fertilizer rate of different farms. This formula replaces 1 to 3 fertilizers.
ALFA COAT NP 25-30
The product contains: amide, nitrate nitrogen (N) and phosphorus (P). A faithful substitute for pre-sowing fertilization. The use of ALFA COAT NP 25-30 is a SINGLE fertilization with a dose of 50% of the conventional nitrogen fertilizer rate of different farms.
ALFA ZEUS N45
The product contains: urea nitrogen (N). Application for pre-sowing and area feeding. ALFA ZEUS N45 is used for SINGLE fertilization with a dose of 50% of the conventional fertilizer rate of farms using ordinary urea.
Crop rotation is essential in the control of weeds in sunflower. Areas intended for sunflower must be free from perennial rhizomatous and rhizomatous weeds. In the spring, depending on the condition of the soil, the time of sowing and the degree of weeding, the pre-sowing treatments are carried out. Through them the sprouted weeds are destroyed. Cultivation is carried out with harrowing, which must coincide with the mass spring emergence of weeds. The inter-row mechanical treatments during the vegetation of the crop are also important in the control of weeds in sunflower. They take place after the sunflower has formed 2-3 pairs of true leaves and continue until the development of 5-6 pairs of leaves. Their number is determined by weeding. The best results are obtained when the row spacing is cultivated to a depth of 6-8 cm. The number of vegetation treatments, as well as their complete exclusion do not affect the yield of sunflower, if the crops are free of weeds. Sunflower herbicides save vegetation treatments. The right decision is to choose the right product. The most effective method of weed control in sunflower is chemical, through the use of herbicides.
Harvesting of sunflowers is done in full maturity, when the moisture in the seeds is below 12%. HARVESTING – is done when 80-90% of the cakes are already brown or dry. If the harvest is done earlier than this phase, the sunflower crumbles less but the humidity of the seeds is high and it is necessary to dry it. The mechanized harvesting of the sunflower is done with grain harvesters, equipped with special devices.
Storage of sunflower
Sunflower seeds are difficult to store. They are quite hygroscopic and easily perishable, so they should be stored only in closed warehouses and mixed periodically.
The silo-warehouse base we have allows us to accept and store all types of crops, oilseeds and technical crops under guaranteed optimal conditions.
Another method is gaining more and more popularity – storage in large and strong plastic bags. AGRAR – bag is a German company that produces machinery systems and equipment for storage without loss of agricultural products in bags.
Storage of dry or wet products in bags:
- other bulk
AGRAR-bagger Grainprofi is a machine for filling bags with a capacity of up to 400t/h. Required power – min. 80 hp Variable tunnel system – 2, 4/2, 7 / 3,0 meters
- length – 3.90 m
- width – 2.40 m
- height – 2.50 m
- volume – about 7 m3
Filling methods: telescopic / front loader reloading trailer option easy loader 200 – the truck is unloaded directly into the hopper
Storage options: hard surface – asphalt, concrete, pavers, etc .; meadow; stubble
AGRAR-bag ex-bag is a machine for fully automated removal or reloading of stored products. It is driven by a tractor by means of a cardan shaft; Hydraulically removable axles; The sack remains completely empty; Productivity – 120 t / h; Required power 80 hp; Max. loading height 4.40 m .; Quick and easy to use; No losses; No breakage and debris; Extraction of the grain through a sweeping auger; The emptied sack is rolled up without leaving any waste;
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